The CES-D is a 20-item, self-report depression scale. Items refer to the frequency of symptoms during last week. It can also be administered as a structured interview. The CES-D is a brief questionnaire that assesses the frequency and duration of the symptoms associated with depression. Studies with alcohol and drug abusers have shown the scale to be a reliable and valid measure of depressed feelings in these groups. CES-D also suitable for measuring change and improvements in depression following treatment. It has been used with both males and females in general population surveys and in various clinical samples, including alcohol and drug abusers. The CES-D has been adapted for use with children. The scale has also been validated for use with adolescents, the elderly, and a number of different ethnic groups. As with other self-assessed depression scales, the CES-D should not be viewed as a diagnostic tool, but rather as a screening test to identify individuals or groups at risk for depression.