This was a randomized, controlled trial that enrolled 1285 participants who were identified with problematic substance use during an ED visit. Participants were randomized to one of three treatment arms: 1) minimal screening only (MSO), 2) screening, assessment, and referral to treatment (SAR), and 3) screening, assessment, and referral plus a brief intervention (BI) with two telephone follow-up booster sessions (BI-B). Follow-up assessments of all three groups were conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months post-randomization. The primary aim of the study was to compare the days of use of the patient-defined primary problem drug, assessed by the Time-Line Follow-Back, for the 30-day period preceding the 3-month follow-up between the three treatment arms. The study also evaluated a number of secondary outcome measures.
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